A facial fracture is a broken bone in the face. The face has a complex bone structure. The facial skeleton consists of the frontal bone forehead , zygomas cheekbones , orbital bones eye sockets , nasal bones, maxillary bones upper jaw and mandible lower jaw. There are many other bones that are found deeper within the facial structure.
The term LeFort fractures is applied to transverse fractures of the midface. Rene' LeFort described three transverse weak lines through the midfacial skeleton as a result of his cadaver studies in Images by RosarioVanTulpe - Own work. Le Fort I level fractures are essentially a separation of the hard palate from the upper maxilla due to a transverse fracture running through the maxilla and pterygoid plates at a level just above the floor of the nose. LeFort II fractures transect the nasal bones, medial-anterior orbital walls, orbital floor, inferior orbital rims and finally transversely fracture the posterior maxilla and pterygoid plates. LeFort III fractures result in craniofacial disjunction.
Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma at moderate or high levels of force. Such injuries may be sustained during a fall, physical assault, motor vehicle collision, or gunshot wound. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. Males are affected more commonly than females, and facial fractures are most common in the third decade, i.
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